“In some Native languages the term for plants translates to “those who take care of us.”

― Robin Wall Kimmerer, Braiding Sweetgrass


In the dappled light of ancient forests, when the wind whispered through the leaves like secrets, early humans began an intricate dance that lasted across millennia with the lush tapestry that surrounded them. In those primordial days, as tender buds unfurled their secrets to the world, humans reached out to touch the essence of life burgeoning around them and listened to their stories. 

Beneath the vast canopy, the hands of early gatherers brushed against leaves, tracing the contours of nature's pharmacy. Every rustle of a leaf, every delicate bloom, held a whispered promise—a promise of sustenance, of healing, and of communion with the earth's silent wisdom.

In the quiet alchemy of discovery, they found nourishment in the succulence of ripened fruits, and the medicine of roots pulled from the nurturing soil. Each bite was a communion, a sacred exchange between the human spirit and the generous earth that cradled them. In the hands of these early healers, leaves became balms, roots offered solace, and blossoms held the delicate elixirs of restoration.

As the sun dipped low fires were kindled with the wisdom of dried boughs, and fragrant herbs infused the air with their spirited essence. Around these flickering hearths, the ancient alchemists of the soil unveiled the secrets of nature's apothecary.

In the sanctuary of these communal gatherings, the early custodians of herbal lore shared more than remedies; they shared stories, weaving the tales of plants into the very fabric of their culture. The embers of their fires carried not only warmth but the echoes of whispered wisdom passed down from ancestors whose spirits lingered in the leaves and roots they revered.

And so, under the boundless expanse of a star-strewn sky, early humans held in their hands the keys to sustenance, healing, and spiritual connection. They were not just foragers; they were stewards of the green sanctuaries that cradled their existence. In the symphony of wind through leaves and the chorus of rustling grasses, they discovered a harmony that resonated through the ages—a melody composed by the very hands that reached out to touch the heart of the botanical realm.

Way WAY Back in the Day AKA The Neolithic Period

Humans have been harnessing the healing power of plants for as long as we've been around. Our journey together has seen remarkable evolution, and throughout this time, plants have been our steadfast providers. They've nourished, dressed, and housed us, offering not only sustenance but also materials for crafting tools and kindling the flames of fire. From the dawn of civilization, we've woven plants into the fabric of both our remedies and rituals.

Before written records, some of our evidence for early plant medicine relied on archaeological evidence and anthropological studies. Based on the analysis of fossilized remains and the presence of certain plants in their burial sites, Neanderthals and other ancient human ancestors are believed to have used plants for medicinal purposes.

Specifically, evidence suggests that Neanderthals consumed yarrow and chamomile, as these plants were found in the dental plaque of Neanderthal remains. This indicates a deliberate selection of plants for reasons beyond nutrition because while highly medicinal, neither are particularly nutritional.

Oral History

Written records, however, do not tell us everything. Many indigenous civilizations utilized oral traditions as their primary means of passing down cultural, historical, and spiritual knowledge. Before the advent of writing systems, indigenous communities around the world developed rich oral traditions to transmit their stories, myths, traditions, and practical knowledge from one generation to the next.

Indigenous cultures around the world had sophisticated systems of herbal medicine. Native American tribes, for example, had a deep understanding of the medicinal properties of local plants long before the arrival of Europeans. We see evidence of this globally. 

Ayahuasca has been integral to the spiritual and medicinal practices of Indigenous communities in the Amazon rainforest. This psychoactive plant mixture is a centerpiece in traditional healing ceremonies, revered for its believed spiritual and medicinal attributes.

In Native American cultures, particularly among Plains Indians, cedar holds profound significance. Used for both spiritual purification in ceremonies and various medicinal applications, cedar smoke is considered a purifying element, connecting the physical and spiritual realms.

Aboriginal Australians turn to eucalyptus for its medicinal properties. Often brewed into tea, the leaves of the eucalyptus tree are utilized to treat common ailments such as colds and fevers, showcasing a traditional approach to holistic healing.

In our own culture of written records, much of this knowledge is overlooked because these societies were typically oral traditions, passed down in communities from elders. Much of this information didn’t reach outside of these communities, but most of the time it’s because no one asked them.

It's important to note that while oral traditions were predominant, some indigenous cultures did develop written systems independently, such as the Maya hieroglyphs and the quipu used by the Inca civilization. However, the prevalence of oral traditions was a common characteristic among many indigenous societies.

Many indigenous cultures maintained oral traditions for millennia, adapting and evolving their storytelling methods to suit the needs of their communities. The longevity of oral traditions is a testament to their effectiveness in preserving cultural identity, history, and wisdom without the need for written documentation. 

Even with the advent of writing systems some cultures often preserved their oral traditions alongside written records, each continuing to play a vital role in passing down knowledge from elders to younger generations. Today, many indigenous communities still value and maintain their oral traditions as essential components of their cultural heritage. This is one of the reasons it’s so important to preserve these various languages. But that’s another rant for another article. 

The roots of plant medicine clearly, and logically extend far back into our prehistoric past, leaving subtle imprints in the archaeological and anthropological record. As written records developed the expanse of man's global knowledge of plants came into the focus we often research today. 

Written Records

Some of the earliest written insights into the world of plant medicine are from around 3000 BCE, from the flourishing Sumerian civilization in Mesopotamia. Their clay tablets offer meticulous accounts detailing diverse plants and their medicinal applications. Notably, the Sumerians also hold the distinction of being the first civilization to create written records. So, the pioneers of written documentation applied that new technology to document their profound understanding and utilization of medicinal plants. The use of plants and herbs in religious ceremonies is also documented in texts such as the Sumerian "Epic of Gilgamesh."

Ancient China, Egypt, India, and Greece all have rich traditions of herbal medicine. In China, herbal remedies were recorded as early as 2800 BC in the legendary Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing. The Egyptians documented their knowledge on papyrus scrolls, and the Ebers Papyrus from around 1550 BC contains information on over 850 herbal medicines. In India, Ayurveda, the traditional system of medicine, has a strong herbal component, with texts like the Charaka Samhita dating back to around 600 BC.

In ancient Greece, Hippocrates, often considered the father of Western medicine, emphasized the use of herbs in his teachings. The Greeks classified plants based on their medicinal properties, laying the groundwork for future herbalists.

Figuring It Out

While trial and error was certainly a significant factor in the early development of plant medicine, early humans likely also learned about the properties of plants through observation and inherited knowledge within their communities. Early humans were keen observers of their environment, and their survival depended on understanding the properties of plants for food, medicine, and other practical uses. They would have noticed which plants animals consumed when they were sick or observed the effects of different plants on their own bodies. I mean, if there was too much error in pure trial and error, we wouldn’t be here today. 

Over time, this accumulated knowledge would have been shared among members of the community, contributing to the formation of early medicinal practices. As societies developed written languages, the knowledge of plant medicine became more systematic and was recorded in various ancient texts and manuscripts. These early herbal traditions laid the foundation for the sophisticated systems of traditional medicine that we see in different cultures around the world today.

In addition, traditional knowledge passed down through generations in indigenous communities provides insights into prehistoric plant medicine practices. These oral traditions often illustrate a deep understanding of local flora and their uses for healing. These cultures grasp the essence and subtleties of plants in a way that eludes the purely scientific analysis of today. Interestingly, when you inquire about how these communities acquired knowledge of plant properties, their response often boils down to simply asking the plants.

Plant Talking

Plant talking, or the idea of communication with plants, is not a scientifically supported concept. It is, however, a staple in many indigenous cultures. The concept of "plant communication" or "talking to plants" is a part of indigenous herbalism and various traditional belief systems. Many indigenous cultures around the world have a deep spiritual connection with nature, viewing plants not only as a source of physical healing but also as beings with spiritual or energetic qualities.

In some traditions, it is believed that by communicating with plants, one can understand their medicinal properties and how to use them for healing. This communication may take the form of rituals, ceremonies, prayers, or direct communion with nature. Some equate the practice as just being quiet enough to listen to the plants. Indigenous herbalists may engage in a dialogue with plants, expressing gratitude, seeking guidance, and asking for permission before harvesting.

This perspective is rooted in a holistic worldview that sees humans as interconnected with the natural world. The idea is not just to extract physical benefits from plants but also to acknowledge and respect the spiritual or energetic aspects of the plant kingdom.

While this approach may differ from the purely scientific analysis of plant properties, it plays a crucial role in the cultural and spiritual practices of many indigenous communities, enriching the understanding of herbalism beyond a purely mechanistic view.

While the idea of plant consciousness or communication is fascinating and has cultural and spiritual significance in various traditions, it is not a method that aligns with the scientific understanding of plant biology and behavior. The scientific study of plants involves empirical observation, experimentation, and analysis of plant physiology and biochemistry to understand their properties and potential uses. That being said when scientists conduct empirical studies to investigate the medicinal properties of these plants, they often find evidence supporting the traditional uses described by indigenous communities.

In other words, a plant that has been traditionally used by an indigenous culture to treat a specific ailment might later be studied by scientists who identify active compounds in the plant with pharmacological properties. The scientific findings can provide validation for the traditional knowledge, demonstrating that the indigenous community's understanding of the plant's medicinal value was based on observable and effective properties.

In some cases, indigenous knowledge has even led to the discovery of novel compounds with therapeutic potential. This intersection between indigenous knowledge and empirical scientific study highlights the importance of respecting and incorporating diverse ways of knowing in the field of herbalism and medicine. It also emphasizes the potential synergy between traditional wisdom and modern scientific methods in advancing our understanding of the natural world.

Beyond Medicine: The Ceremonial Use of Herbs

In the tapestry of our ancestral heritage, plants were not mere sustenance or remedies but held a sacred role in the intricate dance of spirituality and ceremony. Beyond providing nourishment and healing, our forebears recognized the profound connection between the botanical realm and the sacred. Plants were revered as conduits to the divine, integral components in religious rituals, and gateways to altered states of consciousness. From the aromatic herbs burned as offerings to the intricate concoctions brewed for ceremonial rites, our ancestors understood the transformative power of plants, intertwining the threads of nature and the sacred into the fabric of their cultural and spiritual practices. We see evidence of this across the globe. 

Ancient Egypt: The ancient Egyptians used plants in religious ceremonies and rituals. They had a rich tradition of herbalism and associated certain plants with deities and religious symbolism. Plant-based substances were also used in sacred embalming and mummification processes.

Indigenous Cultures: Many indigenous cultures around the world have a deep connection to plants in their spiritual practices. The use of plant-based substances in shamanic rituals and ceremonies is well-documented. For example, various Native American tribes have used plants like sage, tobacco, and peyote in ceremonies.

Ancient Greece and Rome: In ancient Greek and Roman cultures, plants were associated with gods and goddesses, and they were used in religious ceremonies and festivals. The use of laurel leaves, for instance, was common in religious rites.

Asia: Traditional Chinese medicine has a long history of incorporating plants into medicinal and ceremonial practices. The use of plants like ginseng and various herbs is deeply rooted in Chinese culture.

Ayahuasca in South America: The ceremonial use of Ayahuasca, a plant-based psychoactive brew, has been practiced by indigenous peoples in the Amazon rainforest for centuries. It is used in spiritual and healing ceremonies.

Native American Peyote Ceremony: The use of the peyote cactus in Native American ceremonies, particularly in the context of the Native American Church, is a well-known example of the ceremonial use of plants.

These examples demonstrate that the ceremonial use of plants is a cross-cultural phenomenon that has been present throughout human history. Plants have been regarded as sacred, symbolically significant, and spiritually potent in various cultural and religious contexts.

What We Lost

While our utilization of plants predates our own species, a significant portion of the acquired knowledge has slipped through the cracks of time. In contemporary times, there's a tendency to dismiss the intangible aspects of plant knowledge unless validated in a laboratory setting, despite the fact that people have held wisdom about plants for centuries. The most ancient comprehension of herbs has dwindled with the passage of time, and the fading threads of herbal knowledge can be traced to various factors:

Oral Tradition: Much of the herbal knowledge in ancient and indigenous cultures was transmitted orally. Despite the advent of written language, a substantial part remained within oral tradition. Disruptions or displacements in a community could lead to a break in the transmission of this knowledge, particularly with the loss of elders or traditional healers.

Colonization and Cultural Disruption: The colonization of various regions often resulted in the suppression or eradication of indigenous cultures and their traditional practices. The imposition of new cultural norms and the undermining of local traditions led to the loss of herbal knowledge.

Religious and Cultural Conversions: The conversion of communities to new religions sometimes led to the abandonment or suppression of traditional spiritual and medicinal practices, resulting in the loss of associated herbal knowledge.

Industrialization and Modernization: The shift toward industrialization and modernization in many societies brought changes in lifestyle and healthcare practices. Traditional herbal remedies were viewed as outdated, contributing to a growing reliance on synthetic medicines. Consequently, herbal knowledge was devalued and forgotten.

Environmental Changes: Alterations in ecosystems, climate, and land use affect the availability of certain plants. Environmental degradation and loss of biodiversity contributed to the extinction or scarcity of plants traditionally used for medicinal purposes.

Suppression by Authorities: In some historical contexts, authorities sought to suppress traditional herbal practices, viewing them as superstitious or unscientific. This suppression could result in the loss of knowledge as traditional healers were marginalized or persecuted.

Lack of Documentation: Even when herbal knowledge was passed down through generations, not all of it was documented in writing. If a particular community did not have a strong tradition of recording herbal knowledge, valuable information could be lost with the passing of key individuals.

Fortunately, we find ourselves in an era where efforts are being made to reverse this loss. There is a newfound appreciation and recognition for the cultures and ancestors who first uncovered the diverse uses of plants. Contemporary initiatives are underway to document and preserve traditional herbal knowledge, acknowledging its profound cultural and medicinal significance. Despite these positive steps, the decline of herbal knowledge over time remains a multifaceted phenomenon shaped by historical, social, and cultural factors.

"Remember that children, marriages, and flower gardens reflect the kind of care they get." - H. Jackson Brown Jr.

Throughout the expanse of human history, the intricate dance between plants and humans has unfolded, revealing an evolution of coexistence and wisdom. Plants, our constant providers, have not only sustained us but have played integral roles in both ritual and remedy. From the earliest civilizations to the present day, the subtle imprints of herbal knowledge have guided our journey.

The tapestry of herbal wisdom spans epochs, enriching the human story. As we navigate the present, the resurgence of ancient knowledge promises a brighter future. In preserving and honoring diverse legacies of plant wisdom, we forge a bridge between past and present, ensuring that the delicate threads of herbal knowledge continue to weave through the human narrative.